Emigration is the process when a person or a group of people leave the country they live to find a new one to live in. There are many reasons, causing emigration, such as economic, political or personal. Sometimes people leave in order to find a place, where quality of life would be higher than the country where they reside at the moment has. Also, the process influences the economy. However, since emigration involves many distinct factors, it can’t be said for sure whether the influence brings more pros or cons.
Basics of Emigration
After citizens leave the country the number of people who are able to work lessens as well as the amount of money spent on goods and services within the country. These things may affect both the country people leave and the country people are going to live in. In case the left country has too many people who are able to work and who crave to work, emigration affects it in a good way. Since numerous citizens left the country, the unemployment rate has been relieved. On the contrary, the second country obtains workers who are ready to work more for less money, sometimes with very low work requirements. Moreover, more people who spend money and increase the economy appear.
There is a difference between the processes of emigration and immigration. Emigration is leaving a country and immigration on the contrary is the process in which a country obtains new citizens. For instance, someone immigrated to Canada, at this moment the person is a permanent resident of Canada. However, he or she emigrated from the U.S.
Most of the countries are highly concerned with the number of people to emigrate or immigrate, thus, there are special agencies, which are in charge of these issues. In the U.S. the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is concerned with tracking and totaling emigrating people. In Canada Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) plays the role.
People after emigration must pay taxes according to a country's law. The amount of taxes depends on different factors, such as property, earnings, etc. They’re also eligible to pay sales taxes on the goods or services they buy. Social services (education and health care) a country offers are also available for these people. In this case, it’s important to monitor that tax revenues match the amount of money social services spend on an emigrant.
Pros and cons of Emigration for a receiving country
Every time in a country a number of people who are among the workforce changes, it affects the number of workplaces and the amount of the money that may be paid for a certain job. That’s why the country that accepts immigrants must provide a sufficient quantity of workplaces for both local citizens and immigrants. Sometimes there are cases when people who emigrated may work for a lower wage. However, often this work must be paid with more money or a native-born worker asks for a higher wage. Thus, an employer may lessen wages for a native worker and for a person who emigrated.
However, there are advantages of emigration as well. In case of intense economic expansion when companies need many workers to increase production, the process raises the number of the labor force. Thus, it provides new employees. Also, at the time of expansion it brings more money (increasing consumer spending and tax revenue) for the government.