There is computing that, unlike classical or binary computing, relies on quantum theory (quantum theory is a study that provides a description of material and energy behavior on the different scales) and uses its laws. It’s called quantum computing.
The biggest advantage of quantum computing is the ability to encode information not in bits that exist only in one state (one or zero). Quantum computing uses qubits (also quantum bits). Qubits, in turn, utilize subatomic particles that go beyond the borders of a standard conception of a bit as the taken value of such particles can be one and zero simultaneously.
More about Quantum Computing
History of quantum computing started more than thirty years ago, when it was discovered that classical computing couldn’t be the right means to solve particular computational tasks. Thus, it was suggested that it would be much more useful if quantum computing handled some tasks.
Several characteristics such as entanglement or superposition let quantum computers tackle problems much faster than usual computers and spend less resources.
Quantum computing proves itself as one of the most promising fields and has attracted the attention of a large number of solid companies to use it, such as Google, Mitsubishi, Raytheon etc. Quantum computing may become beneficial in such areas as finance, machine learning, Big Data search etc as well.
Comparison of a Quantum Computer and a Classical Computer
In contrast to conventional computers, quantum ones handle information in a distinct way. While classical computers work only with one or zero bits, quantum computers are programmed to work with qubits. They may take the special value and be one and zero simultaneously. The more connected qubits the more power this kind of computer has.
Meanwhile, classical computers perfectly tackle ordinary problems and tasks, quantum computers are more applicable for sophisticated tasks in an area of simulations and data analyses, as it can provide, for example, clinical testing of new medicine.
In addition, the required keeping conditions of quantum computers are special. It must be stored at low temperatures. Also quantum computers are extremely hard to make and they have extremely high prices.
Quantum computers intend to solve sophisticated problems and tasks, therefore it can’t handle Microsoft Office services or apps as fast as a classic computer does. Nevertheless, there is no problem for a quantum computer in running complicated or entangled tasks.
In 2019 Google stated that it achieved a breakthrough, demonstrating that future in quantum computers. It showed that a quantum computer in 200 seconds could handle an operation for which a conventional computer needed approximately ten thousand years.
Generally quantum computing has various implementing ways, for example, safe data sharing. Also, it helps in the healthcare industry (cancer concerns and creating new medicines). Quantum computing is useful for a military industry, for example, it may help to sophisticate radars.
Actual Quantum Computers
Despite great progress and many achievements it is quite far from a real quantum computer, mostly there are mere prototypes. Google tries to bring such technologies into life, planning to build its own machine by 2029. This plan seems quite credible as Google has a special place in California called Google AI to develop this technology. Also, Google and many other organizations have been putting a large amount of money in the quantum computer’s field for quite a long period of time.
Although big organizations are creating their own computers for their use, the commercial sector is poorly developed. However, it doesn't mean that companies have no interest in the sector. On the contrary, Google plans to provide users with quantum computing service through the cloud.
It is possible to have access to quantum technologies even without a quantum computer. For example, IBM has a list of organizations that have access to its Quantum Network. And Microsoft has the Azure Quantum platform for the same purposes.
Cost of Quantum Computers
It's more likely for a quantum computer to cost more than billions of dollars. Despite this, a Chinese company SpinQ created a quantum computer for fifty thousand dollars. Also SpinQ is up to provide schools and universities with quantum computers, selling it for an unbelievable five thousand dollars.